The story of universal beam
My name is I-beam, some people also can me H-beam, w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ). I am a beam with an I or H-shaped cross-section. My horizontal elements of the "I" are known as flanges, while the vertical element is termed the "web". I am usually made of structural steel and used in construction and civil engineering.
My web resists shear forces, while the flanges resist most of the bending moment experienced by the beam. Beam theory shows that the I-shaped section is a very efficient form for carrying both bending and shear loads in the plane of the web. On the other hand, the cross-section has a reduced capacity in the transverse direction, and is also inefficient in carrying torsion, for which hollow structural sections are often preferred.
I am the most popular material in my family of steel.